1.2  Applications of multi-view imaging

First, we introduce stereoscopic displays as a technology enabling several specific applications. Second, some applications to a free-viewpoint video system are provided, and finally, we illustrate the usefulness of multi-view images for video editing.

1.2.1  Stereoscopic displays

Stereoscopic displays allow the viewer to perceive the depth of the scene. This is achieved by displaying a left and right image/view in such a way that they are individually seen by the left and right eye. To obtain this result, several display technologies [88], including polarized displays, barrier-stereo displays and lenticular displays have been developed. Stereoscopic lenticular displays or multi-view lenticular displays, are based on a lenticular sheet which is precisely positioned onto an LCD display (see Figure 1.2). A lenticular sheet consists of an array of micro-lenses that directs the light of the underlying pixels in specific directions. Consequently, the viewing space in front of the display is divided into separate viewing zones, each of them showing a different image or view. The left and right eyes observe therefore a different view of the scene, thereby enabling the perception of depth. Figure 1.2(b) shows a three-view lenticular display that projects the light of three different pixels into three different viewing zones (two zones are drawn in the figure). To enable the viewer to watch the video scene from various viewpoints, nine-view lenticular displays have been introduced [83]. It can be readily understood that increasing the number of views involves a loss of image resolution so that there exists a trade-off between the number of views supported by the display and the resolution of the image. Recently, the development of high-definition (quad HD) LCD displays stimulated the usage of lenticular displays for various applications that we will be discussed in the sequel. On the short term, two-view displays for stereo-vision have gained strong popularity for 3D games and an early introduction to the 3D-TV market.

Figure 1.2 (a) A lenticular display is composed of a lenticular sheet precisely positioned onto an LCD display. (b) Multi-view lenticular display with three pixels/views covered by a micro-lens. Each view is projected into specific directions by the micro-lenses, so that the left and right eye see two different views.

The previously discussed stereoscopic displays enable several 3D applications, which are briefly outlined below.

3D-TV for home entertainment. Three-dimensional television (3D-TV) is expected to become a key application of stereoscopic displays by providing the viewer a feeling of immersion in the movie.

Video games. Similarly, stereoscopic displays greatly enhance the realism of video games by showing a 3D representation of the virtual scene and characters. One significant feature of video games is that a 3D description of the scene is provided by the game. Therefore, the usage of stereoscopic displays is readily supported by 3D video games featuring 3D geometric information.

Training and serious gaming systems. Another application for stereoscopic displays is the training of junior professionals. For example, it has been recently highlighted [39], that the usage of stereoscopic displays simplified the teaching of microscopical surgery to junior medical doctors. More specifically, microscopical surgery involves the manipulation of small structures of organs so that microscopes are usually employed. However, microscopes do not allow junior surgeons to perceive the depth as seen by the senior operating surgeon. Additionally, because junior surgeons lack the experience of anatomic proportions, no alternative cue can be employed to perceive the organ sizes and correctly locate the surgical plane. This example should obviously not be seen as the only application for training junior professionals. Instead, the example simply emphasizes that stereoscopic displays can be employed as a generic medium for training junior professionals such as medical doctors, pilots [35] or tele-operators [24]. This area can be extended to the emerging market of serious gaming that is between professional training and consumer gaming systems.

1.2.2  Free-viewpoint video

The free-viewpoint video application provides the ability for users to interactively select a viewpoint of the video scene. This can be performed by capturing the video scene from multiple viewpoints. However, a free-viewpoint video system does not impose that the selected viewpoint corresponds to an existing camera viewpoint. Therefore, a free-viewpoint video application breaks the restriction of showing an event only from the viewpoint of the cameras, but instead, allows a free navigation within the 3D video scene. For example, interesting applications include the selection of an arbitrary viewpoint for visualizing and analyzing sports or dynamic art (e.g., dance) actions.


The ability to generate an arbitrary viewpoint is of particular interest for sports applications. For example, considering the case of a football match, it is often necessary for the referee to know the position of the players to ensure fair play. By rendering an appropriate viewpoint of the playing field [40], the player positions can be derived and illustrated using the virtual view.

Training video.

Free-viewpoint video technologies also simplify video training activities. For example, the training of dynamic activities such as martial arts or dancing can be simplified by allowing the trainee to select a viewpoint of the scene [110].

1.2.3  Video editing and special effects

Whereas in the previous subsection, the viewpoint was interactively chosen, in this subsection we summarize an application in which professional video editors manipulate time and place in one movie. For example, the multi-view image technology simplifies the production of special effects such as the “bullet time” effect. This effect provides the illusion to the viewer of freezing the time and gradually modifying the viewpoint of the scene. Such a special effect has been demonstrated in movies like “The Matrix”. Additionally, by exploiting the 3D information, it is possible to discriminate some background or foreground objects, which is known as z-keying. Using 3D information, video objects can be easily removed and re-inserted into the video elsewhere. Such video editing capabilities were demonstrated for a dancing video sequence [110]. Finally, it is also possible to insert synthetic 3D objects in the scene to obtain an augmented-reality video scene. This allows a free composition of a virtual scene as desired by the director while preserving the photo-realism of the movie.